# Data structure作业 | Algorithm | project | R语言代写 – Economic Data (EFIM 10016) – Final project

### Economic Data (EFIM 10016) – Final project

Data structure作业 | Algorithm | project | R语言代写 – 这是Data structure进行训练的代写, 对Data structure的流程进行训练解析, 涵盖了Data structure/Algorithm等程序代做方面, 这个项目是project代写的代写题目

Economic Data (EFIM 10016) – Final project

### Formalities

• At most 15 pages, everything included.
• a4paper (210297 millimetres/8.2711.69 inches).
• font size 12
• font type Calibri, Garamond, Times New Roman or similar
• left, bottom, right and top margins of 2.54 cm (1 inch)
• double-spaced
• Please attach all relevant program files and data source files.

### 1 Part 1: Data and visualization basics (25%)

``````A Download your individual dataset from this website:https://hhsievertsen.shinyapps.io/
Data_for_Final_Project/
BModify the dataset such that it satisfies the tidy data principles. Describe the changes you
make to the dataset and insert a table that clearly shows the  Data structure ( based on the
first 10 observations).
CCreate a table that shows the overall average annual growth in income, as well as the average
annual growth in income by gender and occupation.
DDescribe the table created in C.
ECreate a chart that shows the development in income over years across gender and income,
using an index with the year 2000 as the base year.
FDescribe the chart created in E.
``````
• Please attach the spreadsheet document or R code to your submission.

### 2 Part 2: Programming exercise (25%)

Background: You are working in a department where you often seasonally adjust data using a sim- plified version of the X-11 algorithm. Your line manager therefore asks you to create a tool that allows you and your colleagues to seasonally adjust data, without having to implement all steps again every time. The tool should be an Excel (or similar software) or R document that can be shared and updated. Based on a data series provided by the user, the tool should return a seasonally adjusted series. Your line manager also asks you to write a documentation of the tool in form of a “pseudocode” that allows other users to identify how the tool works.

• Your task is to create a program that seasonally adjusts a time series based on a simplified version of the X-11 algorithm. The Algorithm works as follows:
``````1 Identify the trend level by applying a moving average to the raw series.
2 Subtract the trend level from the raw series to obtain a series containing the seasonal
and irregular components.
3 Apply the moving average for each reoccurring period to obtain estimates of the seasonal
component of that period.
4 Subtract the seasonal components from the raw data to obtain a first estimate of sea-
5 Repeat the above steps x times.
``````
• A description of your program in plain English (pseudocode). The pseudocode should not include any programming language syntax (i.e. R commands or Excel formulas). It is important that the pseudocode clearly describes all steps in the program.
• A working version of the program using either R or MS Excel (or similar software), attached as a separate document.
• Your program should be runable.
• You can download a time-series dataset for debugging and testing of your code here:https: //hhsievertsen.shinyapps.io/Data_for_Final_Project/. There is no need to include any visualizations of the data in your answer. It is also not necessary to load the data for testing in your submitted answer.

### 3 Part 3: Presenting economic data (50%)

This part consists of two sub parts: A and B. You can use any of the data sources covered in the unit (The UK Office for National Statistics, The Bank of England, OECD, Eurostat, The World Bank, The United Nations, Our World in Data, The World Inequality Database, The IMF, FRED, The US Census Bureau, Gapminder) for these exercises.

#### A: The labour market

``````A Enter your student number on the following website to determine your individual set of four
countries:https://hhsievertsen.shinyapps.io/Data_for_Final_Project/.^1
BCreate graphs or tables showing raw and seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment rates
for the four countries (fromA) over the period January 2000 to December 2018, for men
and women. If possible, create the seasonally adjusted series yourself, based on the program
written in Part 2 (if this is not possible, try to download a seasonally adjusted series or show
the moving average of the raw data).
CDescribe the graphs or tables created inB. Specifically, you should (1) explain your choice
of visualization method and how you designed the graphs or tables; and (2) describe the
``````

(^1) The data is available for all possible combinations of countries provided on this website. However, if you should have any technical difficulties with respect to the countries, please contact the unit director.

``````development in the unemployment rates in the four countries, for men and women.
DCreate graphs or tables comparing register based and survey based unemployment rates over
the period January 2000 to December 2018 for the four countries (fromA) (the total unem-
ployment rate, not separately for men and women; you could compare either the raw or the
seasonally adjusted series, or both).
EDescribe the graphs or tables created inD. Specifically, you should (1) explain your choice
of visualization method and how you designed the graphs or tables; (2) explain the difference
between the register and survey based unemployment rate; and (3) describe the development
in the difference between register based and survey based unemployment rates.
FIn a speech on 22 August 2014, the president of the European Central Bank, Mario Draghi,
stated the following:
"the euro area Beveridge curve  which summarises unemployment
developments at a given level of labour demand (or vacancies)  suggests
the emergence of a structural mismatch across euro area labour markets
[after the Great Recession,red.]" (ECB, 2014)
``````
• Create Beveridge curves for four countries of your choice. Explain what the Beveridge curve measures, and comment on whether there is evidence of “emergence of a structural mismatch” after the Great Recession in the four countries.

#### B: Poverty and inequality

``````A Create a chart or table showing the development in the share of the population living in
poverty, using the following three poverty thresholds: 1.90USD, 3.20USD and 5.50USD, over
the period 1981 to 2016, for the following four regions: The World, China, Tanzania and
BBased on the graph or table created inA, comment on the following statement:
"The celebrated trend in declining global shares of people in extreme
poverty is misleading as this trend is sensitive to using the 1.90USD
poverty threshold. Moreover the trend is only driven by a few countries."
``````
``````CComment on Figure 1. What is the chart showing? What is the key message? Is the chart
type appropriate?
``````
``````Figure 1: Chart from Durden (2014).
``````

DAppendix 1 shows a table with the data that was used to create Figure 1. Create your own visualization of the data with the same key message. Carefully select a visualization method and explain your choice.

### Appendix

``````Table 1: Table from Wolf (2014)
``````

### References

• ECB (2014) “Speech by Mario Draghi Unemployment in the euro area – Speech by Mario Draghi, President of the ECB, Annual central bank symposium in Jackson Hole, 22 August 2014”, available herehttps://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/key/date/2014/html/sp140822. en.html
• Durden (2014) “The Stunning Charts Showing Just How Much Richer The Rich Have Gotten While The Poor Drown In Debt”, August 2014, available here:https://www.zerohedge.com/ news/2014-08-21/stunning-charts-showing-just-how-much-richer-rich-have-gotten-while-poor-drown-debt
• Wolf, E. N. (2010) “Recent Trends in Household Wealth in the United States: Rising Debt and the Middle-Class Squeezean Update to 2007” by Edward N. Wolff Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, March 2010, available here:http://www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/wp_589. pdf.