hw4-Scripting Language – CSE 320 – Spring 2022
homework | Data structure | bash | 代做shell | assignment – 这道题目是利用shell进行的编程代写任务, 涵盖了Data structure/bash/shell等方面, 该题目是值得借鉴的assignment代写的题目
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homework 4 Scripting Language – CSE 320 – Spring 2022
The goal of this assignment is to become familiar with low-level Unix/POSIX system calls related to processes, signal handling, files, and I/O redirection. You will implement an interpreter, called mush, for a simple scripting language that is capable of managing multiple concurrently executing "jobs".
After completing this assignment, you should:
Understand process execution: forking, executing, and reaping. Understand signal handling. Understand the use of "dup" to perform I/O redirection. Have a more advanced understanding of Unix commands and the command line. Have gained experience with C libraries and system calls. Have enhanced your C programming abilities.
Hints and Tips
We strongly recommend that you check the return codes of all system calls and library functions. This will help you catch errors. BEAT UP YOUR OWN CODE! Use a "monkey at a typewriter" approach to testing it and make sure that no sequence of operations, no matter how ridiculous it may seem, can crash the program. Your code should NEVER crash, and we will deduct points every time your program crashes during grading. Especially make sure that you have avoided race conditions involving process termination and reaping that might result in "flaky" behavior. If you notice odd behavior you don't understand: INVESTIGATE. You should use the debug macro provided to you in the base code. That way, when your program is compiled without -DDEBUG, all of your debugging output will vanish, preventing you from losing points due to superfluous output.
When writing your program, try to comment as much as possible and stay consistent with code formatting. Keep your code organized, and don't be afraid to introduce new source files if/when appropriate.
Reading Man Pages
This assignment will involve the use of many system calls and library functions that you probably haven't used before. As such, it is imperative that you become comfortable looking up function specifications using the man command.
The man command stands for "manual" and takes the name of a function or command (programs) as an argument. For example, if I didn't know how the fork(2) system call worked, I would type man fork into my terminal. This would bring up the manual for the fork(2) system call.
Navigating through a man page once it is open can be weird if you're not familiar with these types of applications. To scroll up and down, you simply use the up arrow key and down arrow key or j and k , respectively. To exit the page, simply type q. That having been said, long man pages may look like a wall of text. So it's useful to be able to search through a page. This can be done by typing the / key, followed by your search phrase, and then hitting enter. Note that man pages are displayed with a program known as less. For more information about navigating the man pages with less, run man less in your terminal.
Now, you may have noticed the 2 in fork(2). This indicates the section in which the man page for fork(2) resides. Here is a list of the man page sections and what they are for.
1 User Commands (Programs)
2 System Calls
3 C Library Functions
4 Devices and Special Files
5 File Formats and Conventions
6 Games, et al
8 System Administration Tools and Daemons
From the table above, we can see that fork(2) belongs to the system call section of the man pages. This is important because there are functions like printf which have multiple entries in different sections of the man pages. If you type man printf into your terminal, the man program will start looking for that name starting from section 1. If it can’t find it, it’ll go to section 2, then section 3 and so on. However, there is actually a shell 代做 script代写”> bash user command called printf, so instead of getting the man page for the printf(3) function which is located in stdio.h, we get the man page for the Bash user command printf(1). If you specifically wanted the function from section 3 of the man pages, you would enter man 3 printf into your terminal.
Remember this: man pages are your bread and butter. Without them, you will have a very difficult time with this assignment.
Fetch and merge the base code for hw4 as described in hw1. Y ou can find it at this link: https://gitlab02.cs.stonybrook.edu/cse320/hw
Here is the structure of the base code:
. .gitlab-ci.yml hw demo mush include debug.h mush.h mush.tab.h syntax.h Makefile rsrc bg_test.mush cancel_test.mush delete_test.mush fg_test.mush goto_test.mush list_test.mush loop1.mush loop2.mush pause_test.mush pipeline_test.mush run_test.mush stop_test.mush wait_test.mush src execution.c jobs.c main.c mush.lex.c mush.tab.c program.c store.c syntax.c
If you run make, the code should compile correctly, resulting in an executable bin/mush. If you run this program, it doesn’t do very much, because there are a number of pieces that you have to fill in.
Mush : Overview
The mush language is a simple programming language which was roughly inspired by the classic programming language BASIC. A mush program consists of a set of statements , with one statement per line of program text. The syntax of statements is given by the following context- free grammar:
Some kinds of statements have required line numbers , other kinds of statements have no line numbers, and for some statements the line numbers are optional. In general, when the mush interpreter reads a statement without a line number, it is executed immediately, whereas when it reads a statement with a line number it is not immediately executed, but instead is saved in the program store. The program store maintains a set of statements, each of which has a line number. In addition, the program store maintains a program counter , which keeps track of the next statement to be executed when mush is in "run mode".
The list, delete, run, and cont statements have no line numbers, and so can only be executed immediately. The list statement causes mush to list the contents of the program store. The delete statement deletes statements from the program store whose line numbers lie within a specified range. The run statement causes mush to reset the program counter to the lowest-numbered statement in the program store and to begin running automatically. The cont statement causes mush to continue automatic execution that has been stopped by the execution of a stop statement. Since a stop statement has a required line number, such a statement can never be executed immediately, but rather only from the program store during automatic execution.
The remaining statements have optional line numbers, and so can be executed either immediately or from the program store. The set statement is used to set the value of a variable to be the result of evaluating an expression. The unset statement is used to un-set the value of a variable, leaving it with no value. The goto statement resets the program counter so that the next statement to be executed is the one with the specified line number. The if statement causes control to be transferred conditionally to the statement with the specified line number, if the specified expression evaluates to a non-zero number. The source statement causes mush to interpret the statements in the specified file before continuing on with the current program.
A statement can also consist of a pipeline , to be executed either in the "foreground" or in the "background". A pipeline consists of a sequence of commands , separated by vertical bars (|), with possible input redirection , specified using < followed by a filename, output redirection , specified using > followed by a filename, or output capturing , specified using >@. A pipeline is executed by mush in much the same fashion as it would be executed by a shell such as bash: a group of processes is created to run the commands concurrently, with the output of each command in the pipeline redirected to become the input of the next command in the pipeline. If input redirection is specified, then the first command in the pipeline has its input redirected from the specified file. If output redirection is specified, then the last command in the pipeline has its output redirected to the specified file. If output capturing is specified, then the output of the last command in the pipeline is read by the mush interpreter itself, which makes it available as the value of a variable that can be referenced by the execution of subsequent statements in the program.
Each command in a pipeline consists of a nonempty sequence of args , where the first arg in the command specifies the name of a program to be run and the remaining args are supplied to the program as part of its argument vector. In mush, an arg takes the form of an atomic expression , which can be either a string variable , a numeric variable , a string literal , or an arbitrary expression enclosed in parentheses.
The syntax of pipelines, commands, and args is given by the following grammar:
<statement> ::= list | delete <lineno> , <lineno> | run | cont | <lineno> stop | <optional_lineno> set <name> = <expr> | <optional_lineno> unset <name> | <optional_lineno> goto <lineno> | <optional_lineno> if <expr> goto <lineno> | <optional_lineno> source <file> | <optional_lineno> <pipeline> | <optional_lineno> <pipeline> & | <optional_lineno> wait <expr> | <optional_lineno> poll <expr> | <optional_lineno> cancel <expr> | <optional_lineno> pause
<pipeline> ::= <command_list> | <pipeline> < <file> | <pipeline> > <file> | <pipeline> >@
Mush supports expressions built up from string variables , numeric variables , and literal strings , using various unary and binary operators, as given by the following grammar:
A string variable consists of a $ symbol followed by a name , which is a sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores, beginning with an alphabetic character or an underscore. A numeric variable is similar, except it uses a # symbol in place of the $. A literal string is either a number , which consists of digits, a word , which consists of non-whitespace characters which do not otherwise have some special meaning to mush, or a quoted string , which is enclosed in double quotes and which may contain special characters. A filename that appears in the input or output redirection part of a pipeline is permitted to be either a word or a quoted string. This allows simple filenames without special characters to be specified without quotes. Filenames that contain special characters (including /) must be specified as quoted strings.
Here is a simple example of a mush program:
The remaining types of statements that mush understands have to do with the manipulation of concurrently executing jobs. Each time mush executes a pipeline statement, a new job is created. Mush keeps track of the existing jobs in a jobs table. Each job in the jobs table has an associated job ID , which is a nonnegative integer that uniquely identifies the job. After starting a job, mush sets the value of the JOB variable to be the job ID of the job that was started. For a foreground job, mush waits for the job to complete and then sets the value of the STATUS variable to be the exit status of the job. Mush then expunges the job from the jobs table. For a background job, mush does not wait for the job to complete, but instead continues execution. At a later time, a wait statement can be executed in order to wait for the background job to complete, to collect its exit status, and to expunge the job. Alternatively, a poll statement can be executed to check whether the job has terminated without waiting if it has not. If the job has terminated, then the exit status is collected and the job is expunged with a poll statement, similarly to a wait statement. Execution of a cancel statement makes an attempt to cancel a specified background job. A SIGKILL signal is sent to the process group to which the processes in the jobs belong. If the processes have not already terminated, then they will terminate upon receiving the SIGKILL signal. A wait statement may be used to wait for this termination to occur and to expunge the canceled job from the jobs table. Note that the wait, poll, and cancel statements all permit the use of an arbitrary expression to specify the job ID.
The final kind of statement that mush supports is the pause statement. This statement causes execution to be suspended pending the receipt of a signal that might indicate a change in the status of jobs in the jobs table. When such a signal is received, execution continues. This way, mush can wait for a change in job status without consuming an excessive amount of CPU time.
<command_list> ::= <command> | <command> | <command_list>
<command> ::= <arg_list>
<arg_list> ::= <arg> | <arg> <arg_list>
<arg> ::= <atomic_expr>
<atomic_expr> ::= <literal_string> | <numeric_var> | <string_var> | ( <expr> )
<expr> ::= <atomic_expr> | <expr> == <expr> | <expr> < <expr> | <expr> > <expr> | <expr> <= <expr> | <expr> >= <expr> | <expr> && <expr> | <expr> || <expr> |! <expr> | <expr> + <expr> | <expr> - <expr> | <expr> * <expr> | <expr> / <expr> | <expr> % <expr>
10 echo "Let's start!" 20 set x = 0 30 date >@ 40 set d = $OUTPUT 50 echo The date and time is: $d 60 sleep 1 70 set x = #x + 1 80 if #x <= 10 goto 30 90 stop
To help you understand how mush is intended to behave, I have provided a demonstration version as a binary with the assignment basecode. This can be found as the executable demo/mush. This demonstration version is intended as an aid to understanding only; it should not be regarded as a specification of what you are to do. It is likely that the demonstration version has some bugs or that its behavior does not conform in some respects to what is stated here and in the specifications in the basecode.
Tasks to be Completed
Included in the basecode for this assignment is an implementation of a parser for mush statements and the basic control structure of the mush interpreter. A number of modules have been left for you to implement. These are:
A program store module, which is used to hold a mush program and manage the program counter.
A data store module, which is used to keep track of the current values of the variables used in a mush program.
A jobs module, which keeps track of the currently executing jobs using a jobs table, and implements job manipulation functions used to execute and wait for pipelines, collect exit status, perform input and output redirection, and implement the output capture feature of mush.
The Program Store Module
Specifications and stubs for the functions that make up the program store module of mush are given in the source file src/program.c. Implementation of these functions from the specifications should be relatively straightforward, so I will not spend additional space on them here. The choice of Data structure used to represent the program store has been left to you. Pay close attention to what the specifications say about who has the responsibility for freeing the memory associated with statements in the store. A correct implementation should not leak memory associated with program statements, and of course it should not suffer from double free bugs and the like.
The Data Store Module
Specifications and stubs for the functions that make up the data store module of mush are given in the source file src/store.c. Once again, I expect that implementation of these functions should be relatively straightforward. As for the program store, the choice of data structure used to implement the data store is for you to make and you should pay attention to what the specifications say about who is responsible for freeing memory.
The Jobs Module
Specifications and stubs for the functions that make up the jobs module of mush are given in the source file src/jobs.c. It is this module that is likely to be unfamiliar and to present some challenges to you, so I am providing some additional guidance here.
You will need to implement some form of "jobs table" in this module, to keep track of the jobs that have been created but not yet expunged. The data structure you use is up to you. If you find it convenient, you may assume that at most JOBS_MAX jobs can exist at one time, where JOBS_MAX is a C preprocessor symbol defined in mush.h. Write your code so that it does not depend on a particular value for JOBS_MAX; do not hard-code the value into your implementation.
Your jobs module will need to make use of handlers for two types of signals. The first is the SIGCHLD signal used to obtain notifications when a child process terminates. This has been discussed in class and can also be found in the textbook. The second type of signal you will need to handle is the SIGIO signal used to obtain notifications when a file descriptor is ready for reading. This will be important to enable your program to capture output from concurrently executing background jobs without the need to commit to waiting for data from any one of them at any particular time. This is discussed further below.
For correct operation, your implementation will likely have to make use of the sigprocmask() function to mask signals during times when a signal handler should be prevented from running. You will likely also need to use the sigsuspend() function under certain circumstances to await the arrival of a signal.
When executing a pipeline consisting of N commands, a total of N+1 processes should be used. One of these processes, which we will call the pipeline leader , should be the direct child of the main mush process. The remaining N processes will be children of the leader process, and will each execute one of the commands in the pipeline. The leader process should set itself into a new process group using its own process ID as the process group ID, and its N child processes should belong to this process group. This is so that job cancellation can be performed by sending just one SIGKILL, directed at the process group for the job. The leader process should wait for and reap its N children before terminating. The main mush process should use its SIGCHLD handler to receive notifications about the termination of pipeline leader processes and to collect their exit status.
The pipe() and dup2() system calls should be used to perform the input and output redirection associated with a pipeline, as discussed in class and in the textbook. Files used for input and output redirection should be opened using the open() system call. For correct operation of a pipeline, care should be taken while setting up the pipeline that each process makes sure to close() pipe file descriptors that it does not use.
The capturing of output from a pipeline by the main mush process is to be accomplished as follows. Before forking the pipeline leader, a pipe should be created to provide a way to redirect output from the last process in the pipeline back to the main mush process. The redirection will be accomplished using dup2() as usual. The main mush process will need to save the file descriptor for the read side of the pipe in the jobs table along with other state information from that job. Output from the pipeline will be collected by the main mush
process by reading from the read side of the pipe and saving what is read in memory. Automatic dynamic allocation of however much memory is required to hold the output can be accomplished by using the open_memstream() function to obtain a FILE object to which the data can be written.
The main technical issue involved in output capturing is how to arrange for the main mush process to collect the output produced from multiple concurrently executing pipelines, without having to block waiting for any one of them to produce output at any given time. This can be done using so-called asynchronous I/O. When the main mush process creates the pipe from which it will read the captured data, it should perform the following system calls (readfd is the file descriptor for the read side of the pipe):
The first of these calls enables non-blocking I/O on the file descriptor. This means that an attempt to read() the file descriptor when no data is available will not cause the main mush process to block ( i.e. wait for data to arrive); rather the read() will return immediately with an error and errno set to EWOULDBLK. The second call sets asynchronous mode on the file descriptor. When this is set, the operating system kernel will send a SIGIO signal whenever there has been a change in status of the file descriptor; for example, whenever data becomes available for reading. The third call is necessary to set the "ownership" of the file descriptor to the main mush process, so that the kernel knows to which process the SIGIO signals should be directed.
Once you have done this, then the main mush process can use a handler for SIGIO signals to become notified when there is output that needs to be captured. It can then poll each of the file descriptors from which output is supposed to be captured, using read() to read input from each of them and save it in memory, until EWOULDBLK indicates that there is no more data currently available. This way, it can collect the captured output in a timely fashion without getting "stuck" waiting for output that might take an indefinite amount of time to arrive.
For more information, you will have to look at the man pages for the various system calls involved, including pipe(), dup2(), fcntl(), open(), read(), signal() (or sigaction()), sigprocmask(), and sigsuspend().
Using gdb to Debug Multi-process Programs
Although it gets harder to debug using gdb once multiple processes are involved, there is some support for it. The gdb command set follow-fork-mode parent causes gdb to follow the parent process after a fork() (this is the default). Similarly, the command set follow-fork-mode child causes gdb to follow the child process instead.
The mush.h Header File
The mush.h header file that we have provided gives function prototypes for the functions that you are to implement, and contains a few other related definitions. The actual specifications for the functions will be found as comments attached to stubs for these functions in the various C source files.
Do not make any changes to mush.h. It will be replaced during grading, and if you change it, you will get a zero!
The syntax.h Header File
The syntax.h header file that we have provided defines the data structures used to represent parsed mush statements. Mostly, you don’t have to know much about the details of these data structures, except, for example, that you will need to be able to extract some information from them, such as the pipeline from a foreground or background pipeline statement. To avoid memory leaks, you will need to use the various free_xxx() functions provided to free syntactic objects when they are no longer being used. You will also need to use the function provided to make a copy of a pipeline object in a certain situation — see the specification for jobs_run() for more information.
Do not make any changes to syntax.h. It will be replaced during grading, and if you change it, you will get a zero!
The syntax.c Source File
The syntax.c source file that we have provided contains the implementations of the various functions for which prototypes are given in syntax.h.
Do not make any changes to syntax.c. It will be replaced during grading, and if you change it, you will get a zero!
The mush.lex.c , mush.tab.c , and mush.tab.h Files
The basecode provides a parser for the mush language. This parser is implemented using the GNU bison parser generator. and the GNU flex lexical analyzer generator. The mush.lex.c, mush.tab.c, and mush.tab.h files are auto-generated files produced by the bison and flex programs.
fcntl(readfd, F_SETFL, O_NONBLOCK); fcntl(readfd, F_SETFL, O_ASYNC); fcntl(readfd, F_SETOWN, getpid());
None of these files should be changed or edited. Do not do the sloppy things that lots of people seem to do, namely, editing these files, reformatting them or otherwise mutating them, and then committing the changed results to git. You will regret it if you do this, and you have been duly warned!
The demo/mush Executable
The file demo/mush is an executable program that behaves more or less like how your program should behave when it is finished.
The behavior of the demo program should be regarded as an example implementation only, not a specification. If there should be any discrepancy between the behavior of the demo program and what it says either in this document or in the specifications in the header files, the latter should be regarded as authoritative.
The rsrc Directory
The rsrc directory contains some sample mush scripts which I used while writing the demo version. They were mostly designed very quickly to exercise the basic features of mush, to verify that they worked to a first cut. One way to run them is to type e.g. source rsrc/xxx_test.mush to the mush prompt, to get it to read and execute the test. If you have run one test and you want to run another, you should use the delete command to clear any statements from the program store that might have been left by the first test, otherwise they might interfere with the new test.
The tests Directory
The tests directory contains just one file, base_tests.c, which contains one Criterion test that isn’t very interesting. This file is basically just a placeholder where you can put tests you might think of yourself.
As usual, make sure your homework compiles before submitting. Test it carefully to be sure that doesn’t crash or exhibit "flaky" behavior due to race conditions. Use valgrind to check for memory errors and leaks. Besides –leak-check=full, also use the option –track-fds=yes to check whether your program is leaking file descriptors because they haven’t been properly closed. You might also want to look into the valgrind –trace-children and related options.
Submit your work using git submit as usual. This homework’s tag is: hw4.