CMSC 216 Project #5 Spring 2022
shell | project代写 – 该题目是一个常规的shell的练习题目代写, 是比较典型的shell等代写方向, 该题目是值得借鉴的project代写的题目
1 Introduction and purpose
You will not write any C code in this project. Instead you willjust write a makefile to compile some code that you are being given. This is a small project, which has only public tests and will not be graded for style. So there is just a short time to do it, in order to leave more time for other projects that are larger and more difficult. We are supplying you with some small C functions in several source files (with associated header files), along with three different programs that use the functions. The programs call the functions and just print two numbers each. What you have to do is to look at the source files for the three programs, figure out the commands that would be needed to compile them and link the resuting object files to create the three executables from them, figure out which files each compilergenerated file depends on, and write a makefile that will do the compilation and linking. Beforestarting to write anything, study the lecture example makefiles. If you arent sure about anything that theyre doing, ask in the TAs office hoursin advance.
2 Supplied code
The project tarfileproject05.tgzcontains the following files:
add-elements.c , increment.c , init.c , and test-equal.c : These source files contain simple utility functions that per- form some operations on arrays of integers.
add-elements.h , increment.h , init.h , and test-equal.h : These are header files with the prototypes for the functions that are defined in the source files above.
application.c , main.c , and tester.c :These are the main programs that call the functions defined inthe files men- tioned above (the programs call different functions).
All the code mentioned above does exactly what we want. Do notchange it in the slightest. Look at it only to figure out how to compile and link it to create the three executable programs.
3 Makefile to be written
- In theproject05directory you must write a makefile, namedMakefile(its namemustbegin with an uppercase ‘M’), which will build three programsapplication.x,main.x, andtester.x(so it must have these three targets) from the three filesapplication.c,main.c, andtester.cand the other source files. You can tell which object files have to be linked together to form each executable by looking at what functions the main programs are calling. And you should be able to see what files have to depend on what other files in by looking at the source files.
- YourMakefilemustalso have a targetall, which will build all three executable programsapplication.x,main.x, andtester.x. It should be the first target, so either running justmake, ormake all, will build all three programs. Note that an example makefile from lecture illustrated the correct way that analltarget should be written.
- YourMakefilemustuse the fivegcccompilation options that we are using this semester (which are-ansi, -pedantic-errors, -Wall,-fstack-protector-all, and lastly-Werror), which were mentioned in the first project, to build object files. (But it shouldnotuse these options when linking object files to form executable programs.) YourMakefileshould not explicitly repeat all five options in every invocation ofgcc; they should be added to compilation commands via the makefile macroCFLAGS, as long as the macro is added to every command that is compiling a source file. (When you compile code on Grace by typinggccin a shell, these options are enforced via an alias forgccthat is added as a result of the account setup steps you made early in the semester. However, a makefile does not recognize shell aliases. This is why the options must be explicitly used in a makefile.) Your makefile should also use the macroCCfor the name of the compiler to use.
- Your makefilemustuse separate compilation for each of the three executable programs, each source file (e.g., add-elements.c) needed to form that program must be separately compiled, then the resulting object files must be linked together to form the executable. (So yourMakefilemust also have additional targets for all object files. Note that there are seven source files, so seven object files shouldbe created by your makefile.)
- YourMakefileshouldnotexplicitly compile header files (i.e., donotpass them togccas arguments).
- YourMakefilemust also have a target namedcleanthat will not create any files but will instead delete all of the compilergenerated files (the object and executable files) that are created by the compilation commands in your makefile.
- Your makefile should have all needed dependencies, otherwise programs may not get built correctly (if some de- pendencies are missing it would not perform some necessary compilations). But it should not have any unnecessary dependencies, because that would lead to it performing compilations that are not needed.
A Development procedure review
A.1 Obtaining the project files, compiling, checking your results, and submitting
Log into the Grace machines and use commands similar to thosefrom before:
cd ~/ tar -zxvf ~/216public/project05/project05.tgz
This will create a directoryproject05that contains the necessary files for the project. Youmusthave your coursework in your course disk space for this class. YourMakefilemustbe in theproject05directory. There are eleven public tests for this project, and no secrettests. These tests are written in languages most students dont know, and you dont need to understand the code for these tests in order to write yourMakefile. So in order to minimize confusion, we havent given you the test programs,so you cannot run the tests yourself on Grace. (There are also no output files for the tests.) But instead we explain here what the tests are testing, and below we explain how to test (beforesubmitting) whether yourMakefilepasses the tests.
- The first test tests whether yourMakefilecorrectly buildsmain.x.
- The second test tests whether yourMakefilecorrectly buildsapplication.x.
- The third test tests whether yourMakefilecorrectly buildstester.x.
- The fourth test tests whether yourMakefilesalltarget works, is written correctly, and is in the correct place in yourMakefile.
- The fifth test tests whether yourMakefileis using separate compilation everywhere.
- The sixth test tests whether yourMakefileis explicitly compiling header files, which should not be done.
- The seventh test tests whether yourMakefilescleantarget removes all compiler-generated (executable and object) files.
- The eighth test tests whether yourMakefileis using the macrosCCandCFLAGS, instead of repeating the compiler name and the compilation options in every rule, and whether it is using the exact namesCCandCFLAGS. (This test also expects that you are using the correct compilation options.)
- The ninth test tests whether yourMakefilehas any missing dependencies.
- The tenth test tests whether yourMakefilehas any extra unnecessary dependencies.
- The eleventh test tests whether yourMakefileis using the required compilation options for creating all object files.
The tests do not test for some stylistic properties of makefiles. In later projects where you write makefiles, these stylistic properties may be checked manually. (If you have questions about whether your makefile is stylistically correct you can ask in the TAs office hours.) Note that even if your makefile correctly builds the three programs, it might still fail tests other than the first three on the submit server. Even if your makefile is missing some rules entirely it could pass the first three tests but still fail later ones.
A.2 Testing your Makefile , and submitting
Beforeyou submit youmusttest yourMakefileyourself. (If it doesnt compile the programs on Grace it wont com- pile them on the submit server.) The first thing to test is whether the three separate commandsmake main.x,make application.x, andmake tester.xcreate the three programs. Besides seeing the three programs in the directory, you should also see seven object files, one created for each source file. The next thing to check is that yourcleantarget removes all executable and object files, but nothing else.First make a copy of your entire project05 directoryusingcp -r, then runmake cleanin theproject05directory. You should still see all seven source and all four header files none should have been removed but you should not see any object or executable files. (The purpose of making a copy of the directory first is so you will have a backup in case anything is incorrectly removed by yourcleantarget. For example, if you are in the main~/216directory, you can usecp -r project05 project05-copyor a similar command.) After runningmake clean, run the three commandsmake main.x,make application.x, andmake tester.x again, to ensure that your makefile will build the programs correctly when there are no executable or object files already in the directory. This is the situation in which your makefilehas to work on the submit server being able to build the programs when there are no executable or object files in the directory so test it first and ensure it works right in the same circumstances. (If there are already some executable or object files in the directory when you try to build the programs your makefile may seem to be working correctly, even if it is missing dependencies or has other problems.) Then runmake cleanagain and thenmake alland ensure that everything is also built correctly in that case as well. Then runmake clean andmakeand you should get the exact same results. Runningsubmitfrom theproject05will submit your makefile. After submitting youmustthen log into the submit server and verify your makefile worked correctly there. If your makefile fails some tests on the submit server, carefully identify what commands you would have to run manually for compiling each source file to an object file, and for linking the necessary object files to form each executable. Then runmake clean, and runmake -non each target (object and executable file) in your makefile one at a time, and see if the commands thatmakesays it would perform are the same ones that you just identified that you would have to run by hand to create that file. If not, something is wrong with your makefile. If you are failing either the ninth or tenth test (missing dependencies or extra unnecessary dependencies) then for each source and header file: (a) carefully determine which objectand executable files would have to be recreated if that file was changed; (b) then create all of the executable and object files so theyre up to date; (c) then usetouchon that source or header file to simulate it changing; (d) then runmake -nto see whether your makefile will causemaketo perform the right commands to create the object and executable files that you determined should be recreated when that file changes. You can ask for help in the TAs office hours if needed,afteryou have already tried doing this, and can show the TAs your results. The TAs willnothelp you unless you have first at least tried testing yourMakefileyourself. If you fail other tests on the submit server and youre sure your makefile is correctly building the three executable programs, other things to check for are that your makefile hasthe right name (it must be namedMakefile), that it is using the requiredgcccompilation options, that it is using separate compilation, that it is not explicitly compiling header files, and that its clean target is removing all object and executable files.
A.3 Grading criteria
Your grade for this project will be based on:
public tests 100 points
Since your Makefile is not being graded for style, and it is notC code, you are not required to write comments in it; of course you may if you like.
B Projectspecific requirements, suggestions, and other notes
- Donotchange any of the source or header files supplied in the project tarfile, or add any source or header files. Your Makefilewill be tested on the submit server using our versions of these files.
- There are many features of make that were not explained in class, because they are difficult for a beginner to use correctly.Your Makefile isonlyallowedtousethefeaturesofmakethatwerecoveredinclass.If you use features not explained in class: (a) your submission may not compile on the submit server for technical reasons not worth
explaining here, (b) the TAs will not be able to help you fix your makefile in office hours, and (c) we will deduct significant credit.
- For this project you willlose one pointfrom your final project score for every submission that you make in excess of ten submissions. (Since you are not writing any C code there wont be any such thing as a noncompiling submission.)
C Academic integrity
Pleasecarefully readthe academic honesty section of the syllabus. Any evidenceof impermissible cooperation on projects, use of disallowed materials or resources, publicly providing others access to your project code online, or unautho- rized use of computer accounts,will be submittedto the Office of Student Conduct, which could result in an XF for the course, or suspension or expulsion from the University. Be sure you understand what you are and what you are not permit- ted to do in regards to academic integrity when it comes to projects. These policies apply to all students, and the Student Honor Council does not consider lack of knowledge of the policies to be a defense for violating them. More information is in the course syllabus please review it now. The academic integrity requirements also apply to any test data for projects, which must beyour own original work. Exchanging test data or working together to write test casesis also prohibited.