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CS 590: Algorithm

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Week 1: Introduction


  • About me
  • Course Information
  • Course Description
  • Important Points
  • Technology Requirements
  • Course Requirements
  • Schedule
  • Grading Policy
  • Overview of Algorithm
  • Overview of C++
About Me
Prof. In Suk Jang
  • Contact: [email protected]
    • Pleaseinclude the section in the subject line, e.g., CS590-A: xxxxx
  • TeachingCourses:Algorithm,MachineLearning
  • ResearchInterests: Black Holes, Machine Learning
Course Information
Course Title: CS 590 Algorithms
Course Period: B Tuesday, A Wednesday, C -Thursday 6:30 PM 9:00 PM
Office Hours:
  • Monday 1- 2 PM or by appointment
  • Link: https://stevens.zoom.us/j/ Resources:
  • Textbook: Introduction to Algorithms, 3rdEdition, M IT press CLRS
  • Lecture Notes, c++ documents are available in Canvas.
Course Description
  • This is a course on more complex data structures, and Algorithm design and analysis , using one or more modern imperative language(s), as chosen by the instructor.
  • Topics include: advanced and/or balanced search trees; further asymptotic complexity analysis; standard algorithm design techniques; graph algorithms; complex sort algorithms; and other classic algorithms that serve as examples of design techniques.
Course Description

####### After successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Complexity Explain the meaning of big-O, Theta, and Omega notations. Calculate
  • the asymptotic running time of standard algorithms, and use it to compare efficiency.
  • Master Theorem Use the Master Theorem to prove asymptotic assumptions
  • Sorting – Compare and analyze basic and advanced sorting algorithms.
  • Trees – Implement advanced search trees such as Binary Search Trees, and Red-Black

####### Trees.

  • Graphs – Implement standard algorithms using graphs and weighted graphs in C++ (e.g.,

####### DFS, BFS, MST, topological sort).

  • Shortest Paths Implement standard algorithms to solve the shortest path finding

####### problem. (Dijkstra, Bellman-Ford, Floyd-Warshall)

  • Algorithmic Design – Apply standard algorithm design techniques such as the greedy

####### technique, dynamic programming, hashing, and space/time trade-offs.

Important Points
  • Communication
  • Office hours
  • Questions

Baseline technical skills necessary for online courses

  • Basic computer and web-browsing skills
  • Navigating Canvas

Required Equipment

  • Computer: current Mac (OS X) or PC (Windows 7+) with high-speed internet connection

Required Software

  • Microsoft Word

Integrated Developing Environment (IDE)

  • Grades will be based on: Any complaint regarding a grade must be presented no later than 7 weekdays following the publication of grades of respective assignments. Penalties for specific mistakes that are applied to exams, assignments and quizzes are equal for all students in the course. If you contact me to negotiate these penalties, I will not respond.
  • Late Policy Late assignment (even by 2 seconds) will be given a -25% decrease penalty per day, for the first 2 days after the deadline. So, if you send an assignment 1 second late, you will receive 75% of your grade for the assignment. If you send it, 24 hours, and 1 second late, you will receive 50% of your grade for the assignment etc. After 48hrs from the deadline there will be a -90% decrease penalty, so you will receive 10% of your grade.
Quizzes 20%
Assignments 50%
Exam 30%
  • Homework: The programming assignments will be done individually. No collaboration is allowed between students. No code from online resources is allowed to be used besides the code that I will share with you. Any sign of collaboration will result in a 0 and being reported to the Honor Board. Programming assignments might be tested for similarity using the MOSS, or similar software, and any sign of collaboration will be reported to the HONOR board. Students who are caught collaborating for a second time, they will receive a failing grade (F) in the course. – Only C++? You can do the first assignment with other language if you are new to C++. – But will be penalized for not using C++ from Assignment 2. (10% for each assignment) – Most of assignments are implementations of algorithms we discuss in class. – But you will implement from the stretch but will translate pseudocode to C++. – There will be some mathematical deriving questions. – All assignment results must be written and submit together with codes. – Each assignment will be available on Friday 12 AM.
  • Quizzes: A short quiz will be given every week, after the end of the add/drop period, starting on week 3. The quizzes will be given on Canvas using the RespondusLockDownbrowser.
  • Exams: The final exam will be given during the final exam period. An announcement will be posted with more details on week 13. The examwill be a paper exam in classroom. – The details for web students will be discussed at the same time.
Course Schedule – A
Week Day Topics Covered Reading Assignments
1 1/19 Introduction & Overview of the language C++ Week 1 Lecture Notes
2 1/26 Advanced C++ review Week 2 Lecture Notes
3 2/2 Sorting, and computational complexity Chapter 2 Assignment 1Quiz 1
4 2/9 sorting, and computational complexity (II) Chapters 3,4 Quiz 2
5 2/16 Sorting Algorithms Chapters 6,7,8 Assignment 2Quiz 3
6 2/23 Introduction to trees, binary search trees Chapter 12 Quiz 4
7 3/2 Red black trees Chapter 13 Assignment Quiz 5^3
8 3/9 Dynamic Programming Chapter 15 Quiz 6
9 3/16 Spring Recess No Class
10 3/23 Greedy Algorithms Chapter 16 Assignment 4Quiz 7
11 3/30 Introduction to graphs, DFS, BFS Chapter 22 Quiz 8
12 4/6 Topological ordering, MST Chapter 23 Assignment 5Quiz 9
13 4/13 Shortest paths I (Online) Chapters 24,25 Quiz 10
14 4/20 Shortest paths II Chapters 24,
15 4/27 Overview (Online)
16 5/11 Final Exam

Introduction to Algorithm

  • Algorithm
  • Data Structure
  • Efficiency

####### What are Algorithms?

  • Any well-defined computational procedure that takes some value, or set of values, as input and

####### produces some value, or set of values as output.

  • Sequences of computational steps that transform the input into the output
  • Tools for solving a well-specified computational problem (input/output relationship)
  • instance of a problem consists of the input needed to compute a solution to the problem.
  • correct algorithm solves the given computational problem.

####### Example Sorting Problem (We will look into this detail in Week 3):

  • Input: 31 , 41 , 59 , 26 , 41 , 58
  • Output: 26 , 31 , 41 , 41 , 58 , 59
Introduction to Algorithm
Data Structure
Data Structure
  • a way to store and organize data in order to facilitate access and modification.
  • no single Data structure optimal for all purposes.
  • usually optimized for a specific problem setting.
  • important to know the strength and limitations of several of them.
Computing time and memory are bounded resources.
  • Different algorithms that solve the same problem often differ in their efficiency.
  • More significant than differences due to hardware (CPU, memory, disks, …) and software (OS, programming language, compiler, …).
Algorithms and other technologies
Consider algorithms like computer hardware, as a technology
In this course, we care most about asymptotic performance
  • How does the algorithm behave as the problem size gets very large?
  • Running time
  • Memory/storage requirements
  • Bandwidth/power requirements/logic gates/etc.

Introduction to C++

  • Introduction
  • Evolution
  • General Structure
  • A Simple C++ Program
  • About Learning
  • The C++ programming language is a very powerful general purpose programming language that supports procedural programming as well as object oriented programming. It incorporates all the ingredients required for building software for large and complex problems.
  • The C++ language is treated as super set of C language because the developer of C++ language have retained all features of C, enhanced some of the existing features, and incorporated new features to support for object oriented programming.
  • The importance of C++ can well be judged from the following statement:
  • Object Oriented Technology is regarded as the ultimate paradigm for the modeling of information, be that information data or logic. The C++ has by now shown to fulfill this goal.

Introduction to C++

  • The C++ programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT&T BELL LABORATORIES , NEW JERSEY, USA, in the early 1980s.
  • He found that as the problem size and complexity grows, it becomes extremely difficult to manage it using most of procedural languages, even with C language.

Evolution of C++ Language

Declarations: data types, function signatures, classes 
  • Allows the compiler to check for type safety, correct syntax
  • Usually kept in header (.h) files
  • Included as needed by other files (to keep compiler happy) class Simple { public: Simple (int i); void print_i (); private: int i_; };
Definitions: static variable initialization, function implementation
  • The part that turns into an executable program
  • Usually kept in source (.cpp) files void Simple::print_i () { cout<< i_is <<i_<<endl; }
Directives: tell compiler (or pre-compiler) to do something
typedef unsigned int UINT32;
int usage (char * program_name);
struct Point2D {
double x_;
double y_;


Section 1: Comments
  • It contains the description about the program. Section 2: Preprocessor Directives
  • The frequently used preprocessor directives are include and define. These directives tell the preprocessor how to prepare the program for compilation. The include directive tells which header files are to be included in the program and the define directive is usually used to associate an identifier with a literal that is to be used at many places in the program. Section 3: Global Declarations
  • These declarations usually include the declaration of the data items which are to be shared between many functions in the program. It also include the decorations of functions. Section 4: Main function
  • The execution of the program always begins with the execution of the main function. The main function can call any number of other functions, and those called function can further call other functions. Section 5: Other functions as required


What is #include<iostream>?
  • #include tells the precompilerto include a file
  • Usually, we include header files
    • Contain declarations of structs, classes, functions
  • Sometimes we include template definitions
    • Varies from compiler to compiler
    • Advanced topic, out of scope for this course, but feel free to look it up!
  • is the C++ label for a standard header file for input and output streams

A Simple C++ Program

What is using namespace std;?

  • The using directive tells the compiler to include code from libraries that have separate namespaces – Similar idea to packages in other languages
  • C++ provides a namespace for its standard library
    • Calledthe standard namespace (written asstd)
    • cout, cin, and cerrstandard iostreams, and much more
  • Namespaces reduce collisions between symbols
    • Rely on the :: scoping operator to match symbols to them
    • If another library with namespace mylib defined cout we could say std::coutvs. mylib::cout
  • Can also apply using more selectively:
    • E.g., just usingstd::cout

What is int main (int, char[]) { … }?*

  • Defines the main function of any C++ program
  • Who calls main?
    • The runtime environment, specifically a function often called something like crt0 or crtexe
  • What about the stuff in parentheses?
    • A list of types of the input arguments to function main
    • With the function name, makes up its signature
    • Since this version of main ignores any inputs, we leave off names of the input variables, and only give their types
  • What about the stuff in braces?
    • Its the body of function main, its definition

Whats cout<< Hello, CS590 << endl;?

  • Uses the standard output iostream, named cout
    • For standard input, use cin
    • For standard error, use cerr
  • << is an operator for inserting into the stream
    • A member operator of the ostreamclass
    • Returns a reference to stream on which its called
    • Can be applied repeatedly to references left-to-right
  • hello, cs590 is a C-style string
    • A14-position character array terminated by \0
  • endl is an iostream manipulator
    • Ends the line, by inserting end-of-line character(s)
    • Also flushes the stream

What about return 0;?

  • The main function should return an integer
    • By convention it should return 0 for success
    • And a non-zero value to indicate failure
  • The program should not exit any other way
    • Letting an exception propagate uncaught
    • Dividing by zero
    • Dereferencing a null pointer
    • Accessing memory not owned by the program
      • Indexing an array out of range can do this
      • Dereferencing a stray pointer can do this
A key goal is to expand & refine your mental models
  • For C++ mainly, but also for algorithms in general
  • Notice and try out new ideas, share them, discuss them
  • Challenge your understanding in as many ways as you can
If you dont remember every detail at first, thats ok
  • Well revisit concepts and techniques from different angles
  • Try to refresh your memory early and often
  • Apply what you learn, early and often, towards mastery
Well work together to build understanding in stages
  • First as a consumer of an approach (can you use it?)
  • Then understanding it thoroughly ( when can you use it?)
  • Then as a contributor to the approach (can you expand it?)

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